Union membership raises the wages of younger workers but protects older workers from layoffs better. The marginal union member makes use of public transfer systems at far lower rates, saving the government money.
Labor market competition leads to higher real worker earnings, lower firm productivity, firm closer, greater inequality, population loss, and changes in political sentiments in communities affected by it.
Occupational licensing has negative wage and labor supply effects on occupations that use similar latent skills consistent with a monopsony model. The negative effects are particularly strong for women, black workers, and Hispanic workers.
The tax credits in the Affordable Care Act substantially reduce bankruptcy, and severely delinquent debt. Welfare gains for protection against medical debt accounts for 15% of program costs, while indirect transfers to creditors, lenders, and hospitals account for almost 2/3 of the costs.